Популизм Өмнөд Америкт мөхөж байна

38c17b4a43d433c414d298212c12042cЛатин америкчууд өмнө нь Доналд Трамп шиг олон удирдагчийн нүүр үзсэн биз ээ. Венесуэлийн Уго Чавез, Аргентины Кристина Фернандез, Эквадорын Рафаэль Корреа гэх мэт популист үндсэрхэг үзэлтэй төрийн тэргүүнүүд бүс нутагтаа хүч нөлөөтэй байлаа.

Харин одоо Уго Чавез нас барсан, хатагтай Фернандез их хэмжээний авлигын асуудалд орооцолдож шоронгийн хаалга татах хэмжээнд яригдаж, харин 2007 оноос хойш Эквадорын Ерөнхийлөгчөөр ажилласанКорреа дараагийн сонгуульд өрсөлдөхгүй гэдгээ мэдэгдсэн юм. Мөн Боливийн Ерөнхийлөгч, популист хандлагатай Эво Моралесыг 2025 он хүртэл төрийн тэргүүнээр ажиллуулах бүх нийтийн санал асуулгын дүн таагүй гарсан хэдий ч түүний нэр нөлөө ойрын хэдэн жилдээ хэвээрээ байх болов уу.

АНУ, Европын орнуудадпопулизм хүрээгээ тэлэх хандлагатай байгаа ч Латин Америкт яагаад хумигдаж байгаа нь сонирхолтой.

Түүхээс авч үзвэл 1940-өөд оны Аргентины удирдагч Хуан Доминго Перон бүс нутагтаа популизмын тод жишээ болсон улстөрч байсан бөгөөд энэ нь ч түүний онцлог болж байлаа. Заримдаа барууны үзэлтэй юм шиг хэр нь бусад үед зүүний хэв маягтай байхнь популист улстөрчдийн гол шинж чанар. Тиймээс иргэд Бүгд найрамдах намын Доналд Трамп, Их Британийн Тусгаар тогтнолын намын тэргүүн Нигель Фараг шиг улстөрчдөд итгэж найдаж олигархийн эсрэг тэмцэх болов уу хэмээн саналаа өгдөг. Тэдний дүрэм нь их энгийн. Төр засаг, намын дарга, удирдагчдыг үл тоомсорлоход оршиж байдаг.

Иймэрхүү популист удирдагчид гарч ирснээр Латин Америкт баялгийн тэгш бус хуваарилалт, орлогын ижил байдал өссөн ч гэсэнүүнийг баян чинээлэг ардчилсан орнуудад популист хэмээн түлхэцгээдэг юм.

Үйлдвэрчний эвлэлүүдийн холбооны идэвх сул байдаг газарт популизм хорт хавдар мэт хурдацтай тархаж чаддаг. “Ард түмэн…” гэх үгийг уриа лоозонгоо болгосон популистуудын гол арга хэрэгсэл нь “бэлэн хоол” амлахад чиглэгддэг. Тэгш бус байдлыг бууруулахын тулдинфляцийн аюулыг үл харгалзан цалинг нэмсээр байдаг.

1990-ээд онд Латин Америкт популизм хүчээ авсан хэдий ч 2000 он гарснаас хойш энэ тивийн улс орнуудын эдийн засаг зогсонги байдалд орж, санхүүгийн хямралд өртөж, их хэмжээний өрөнд унасан юм. Харин Чавезын хувьд тун азтай. Тэрбээр Хятадын аж үйлдвэрлэлийн асар их хэрэгцээ шаардлагад Венесуэлийг нийцүүлж чадсанаараа албан тушаалдаа удаан хугацаанд тогтож чадсан. Чавез орлогын хуваарилалтыг тун чадмаг зохион байгуулдаг байсан ч түүнийг нас барсны дараа энэ мөнгө дууссан нь харамсалтай.

Хятадын эдийн засгийн өсөлтийн хурд удааширсанаас үүдэж Латин Америкийн орнуудын эдийн засаг хүндхэн байдалтай зургаа дахь жилтэйгээ золгож байна. Учир нь Венесуэл, Аргентин, Эквадор гэх мэт Латин Америкийн улс орнуудын удирдагчид санхүүгийн тун болчимгүй, хариуцлагагүй алхмуудаас үүдэж шил шилээ даран хямрав. Өөрөөр хэлбэл, мөнгөө буруу зарцуулав.Тиймээс одоо иргэд ньулс төрийн өөрчлөлт шинэчлэл хийхийг шаардах болсон юм.

Өмнөд Америкт урт хугацаанд зүүний маягийн, популизм ноёрхож байсан бол одоо баруун төвт үзэл санаа давамгайлах хандлагатай байна. Жишээлбэл, Аргентин, Бразил, Перугийн шинэ эрх баригчид АНУ-тай эдийн засгийн хамтын ажиллагаагаа сайжруулахыг эрмэлзэх боллоо. АНУ-ын одоогийн эрх баригчид олон тэрбум ам.доллар яригдаж буй Өмнөд Америкийн чөлөөт худалдааны гэрээ хэлэлцээрээс гарахгүй гэдгээ мэдэгдсэнээр ирэх онд эрх мэдлийг гартаа авах Доналд Трампийн мөрийн хөтөлбөрийн амлалт биелэлээ олох боломжгүй болж байгаа гэдэгт итгэлтэй байж болох юм. Тиймээс Латин америкчууд популизмээ ардаа орхиж өөрсдийн цэвэр хүч чадлаараа хөдөлмөрлөх л үлдээд байна. Хамгийн чухал нь олсон мөнгөө арвижуулж, үр дүнтэй зарцуулах ёстой юм.

Т.Мунаа


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