Сендайн үйл ажиллагаа ба хүүхэд, залуучуудын оролцоо

36351940_1817154555011134_6165745910723641344_nМонгол Улсын Засгийн газар, НҮБ-ын Гамшгийн Эрсдэлийг Бууруулах газартай хамтран Гамшгийн эрсдэлийг бууруулах Азийн сайд нарын бага хурлыг “Гамшгийн эрсдэлээс урьдчилан сэргийлснээр Тогтвортой хөгжлийг хангах нь” уриан доор ирэх долдугаар сарын 3-6-нд Улаанбаатар хотод зохион байгуулахаар төлөвлөж байна. Тус бага хурлаар Сендайн үйл ажиллагааны хүрээ баримт бичгийн эхний гурван жилийн үйл ажиллагаа, Азийн бүсийн төлөвлөгөө, Гамшгийн Эрсдэлийг Бууруулах чиглэлээр бүс нутгийн, улс орнуудын хүлээсэн үүрэг амлалт,авч хэрэгжүүлж буй арга хэмжээний ахиц дэвшлийг үнэлж дүгнэх юм.

Сендайн үйл ажиллагааны хүрээ гэж юу вэ

2015 онд Япон улсын Сендай хотод дэлхийн 187 улс орны төлөөлөгчид гамшгийн эрсдэлийг бууруулах Сендайн Үйл Ажиллагааны Хүрээ хэмээх баримт бичгийг баталсан бөгөөд дараах дөрвөн тэргүүлэх чиглэлийг баталсан байна. Үүнд, нэгдүгээрт, Гамшгийн эрсдэлийг ойлгох; хоёрдугаарт, Гамшгийн эрсдэлийг удирдах засаглалыг бэхжүүлэх; гуравдугаарт,_Гамшигтай тэмцэх чадавхыг бэхжүүлэхэд чиглэсэн эрсдэлийг бууруулах үйл ажиллагаанд хөрөнгө оруулах; дөрөвдүгээрт, Гамшгийн хор уршгийг арилгах үйл ажиллагааг үр дүнтэй хэрэгжүүлэхийн тулд бэлэн байдлыг хангах, гамшгийн дараах сэргээн босгох, нөхөн сэргээх үе шатанд “Сайжруулан барих” үйл ажиллагааг хэрэгжүүлэх зэрэг юм.

Хүүхдийн эрх, сайн сайхан байдлыг хангах талаар гишүүн орнуудад зориулсан удирдамж дараах дөрвөн тэргүүлэх чиглэл тодорхойлсон. Үүнд, нэгдүгээрт, Хүүхэд төвтэй эрсдэлийн үнэлгээ хийж, хүүхдийг эмзэг байдалд хүргэж байгаа үндсэн шалтгааныг тодруулах; хоёрдугаарт, Гамшиг, онцгой байдлын үеийн хүүхэд хамгаалалын чадавх, тогтолцоог бэхжүүлэх; гуравдугаарт, Сургуулийн аюулгүй байдлыг цогцоор нь хангахад эн тэргүүнд анхаарах, үүнд сургуулийн барилга, байгууламжийн аюулгүй байдал, сургуулийн гамшгийн удирдлага болон гамшгийн эрсдэлийг бууруулах боловсрол орно, дөрөвдүгээрт, Шийдвэр гаргах үйл явц болон Сендайн үйл ажиллагааны хүрээний хэрэгжилтэд бүх түвшинд хяналт тавихад хүүхдийн утга учиртай оролцоог нэмэгдүүлэх;

Сүүлийн 12 жилд 600 гаруй хүүхэд гамшгийн улмаас амиа алджээ

Зөвхөн 2017 онд дэлхийн хэмжээнд 66,7 сая хүн гамшигт өртсөн байна. 1970-2016 оны хооронд гамшгаас үүдсэн хохирлын хэмжээ 1,3 их наяд ам.долларт хүрчээ.

Манай орны хувьд сүүлийн 12 жилд буюу 2005-2017 онд онцгой байдлын байгууллагын аврагчид эдгээр осол гамшгаас 15 мянган хүнийг аварсан ч 600 хүүхэд аврагдаж чадаагүй амь насаа алдаж, 250 орчим хүүхэд эрүүл мэндээрээ хохирсон байна.Тэдгээрээс дийлэнх нь 3-6 насны хүүхэд байна.

Дэлхийн хэмжээнд уур амьсгалын өөрчлөлт, хүний зохисгүй үйл ажиллагаанаас улбаатай гарч буй гамшгийн давтамж ойртож, үргэлжлэх хугацаа нь уртасч, түүнээс үүдэн гарах хохирлын хэмжээ жилээс жилд нэмэгдэх хандлагатай байна.

Монгол Улсад ч байгалийн аюулт үзэгдэл, хүний буруутай үйл ажиллагаанаас үүдэлтэй ослын улмаас хүний амь нас эрүүл мэнд хохирох, эд материалын гарз тохиолдох нь нэмэгдэж байна.

Монгол Улсад гамшгаас хамгаалах үйл ажиллагаа ямар түвшинд явагддаг вэ

Дэлхийн улс орны нийгэм, эдийн засаг, улс төр, байгаль орчин, гамшгийн хямралыг даван туулах нөөц, чадавхыг үнэлэн эрэмбэлдэг Эмзэг байдлын үзүүлэлтээр (Fragility index) Монгол Улс нийт 120 онооноос 56.7 оноо авч 2017 оны байдлаар нийт 178 улсаас 128 дугаар байрт орсон ба энэ үзүүлэлт сүүлийн арван жилийн хугацаанд ердөө -1.7 оноогоор буурсан байна (American Foreign Policy Magazine 2018). Энэ нь Монгол Улс аливаа төрлийн хямралыг даван туулах нөөц, чадавх сул байгааг төдийгүй дорвитой бэхжүүлж, сайжруулж чадахгүй байгааг харуулж байна.

Мөн нийгмийг хамарсан аливаа хямралаас улс орон урьдчилан сэргийлж, бэлэн байж, үр дүнтэй хариу арга хэмжээ авч чадах нөөц бололцоо, чадавхтай эсэхийг тогтоодог ИНФОРМ Эрсдэлийн үзүүлэлтээр (INFORM Country Risk Profile) Монгол Улс 191 улсаас 99 дүгээр байрт оржээ (Joint Research Center European Commission 2017).

Эрхзүйн орчны хувьд гамшгаас хамгаалахтай холбоотой хэд хэдэн хууль тогтоомж, төрөөс баримтлах бодлого, Үндэсний хөтөлбөр байдаг. 2014 онд Онцгой байдлын ерөнхий газар нь “Гамшгаас хамгаалах үйл ажиллагаанд хүүхэд хамгааллын талаар баримтлах чиглэл”-ийг баталснаар ОБЕГ нь хүүхдийн эрхэм дээд, язгуур эрх ашгийг хамгаалах, хүүхдийн эрх зөрчигдөхөөс урьдчилан сэргийлэх, хүүхэд хамгааллын түншлэл, хамтын ажиллагааг хөгжүүлэх болон хүүхдэд ээлтэй, хүртээмжтэй, үр дүнд чиглэсэн мэргэжлийн үйлчилгээ үзүүлэх эрхэм үүргийг хүлээсэн.

Б.Энх 

 

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