Улсын хэмжээнд ажилгүйдэл буурсан ч баян, ядуугийн ялгаа холдсоор байна

skritayabezrabotitsavidiformixarakterist_A3CF6474УЛСЫН ХЭМЖЭЭНД 104.1 МЯНГАН АЖИЛГҮЙ ИРГЭН БАЙНА

Үндэсний статистикийн хорооноос Монгол Улсын нийгэм, эдийн засгийн 2018 оны эхний долоон сарын байдлын талаар мэдээлэл хийлээ. Үүнээс энэ удаад хоёр зүйлийг онцолж байна. Тус хорооны ахлах шинжээч С.Норовын мэдээлснээр манай улсын эдийн засгийн идэвхтэй хүн ам буюу ажиллах хүч 1.4 сая болсны талаас илүү хувь нь эрчүүд байгаа аж. Нийт ажиллах хүчний 38.5 хувь нь хөдөө орон нутагт, үлдсэн нь хот суурин газарт амьдарч байгаа боловч оролцооны төвшин хөдөөд өндөр гарсан байна. Харин эдийн засгийн идэвхгүй хүн амын дотор өндөр настан, тэтгэврийнхэн, 15-аас доош насны хүүхэд, оюутан суралцагчид болон хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй, гэрийн ажилтай, өвчин хуучтай иргэд багтдаг. Тэдний тоо оны эхний долоон сард 25.9 мянгаар нэмэгдсэн байна.
Судалгааны дүнгээс үзэхэд улсын хэмжээнд 104.1 мянган ажилгүй иргэн байгаа нь ажилгүйдлийн төвшинг 7.5 хувьд хүргэсэн ч өмнөх оны мөн үе болон урьдах сараас буурсан үзүүлэлттэй байгаа юм. Тэдний гуравны нэг орчим нь ажил хайж, хөдөлмөр эрхлэлт зуучлалын байгууллагад бүртгүүлсэн байна. Дээр нь өөрөө эрхэлсэн ажилтай боловч давхар ажиллаж, өрхийн орлогоо нэмэгдүүлэх зорилготой 10.1 мянган иргэн байдаг аж. Мөн хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэд ч өөрт тохирсон ажил хөдөлмөр эрхлэхээр бүртгүүлсэн байна. Үйлдвэрлэл, үйлчилгээ эрхэлж буй аж ахуйн нэгж, компани, байгууллага Хөдөлмөрийн тухай хуулиа баримталж, 50 ажиллагч тутамдаа хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй нэг иргэнийг авч ажиллуулдаг бол тэдний хүсэлтийг төвөггүй биелүүлэх боломж баймаар. Улсын хэмжээнд хөдөлмөр эрхлэлтийн байгууллагад бүртгэлтэй, хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй ердөө л 476 иргэн байгаа юм. Аймаг, нийслэлийн хөдөлмөр эрхлэлтийн байгууллагад оны эхний долоон сард ажилгүй 48.3 мянган иргэн шинээр бүртгүүлснээс үзэхэд манай улсад ажиллах хүчний нөөц хангалттай байгааг харуулж байна. Мөн хугацаанд 11.5 мянган иргэн ажилд зуучлагдаж орсон гэх мэдээлэл нь манайд ажлын байр цөөнгүй байгааг баталж буй хэрэг. Гэвч тухайн ажлын байранд тавигдах шаардлагын үндсэн үзүүлэлт болох боловсролын байдал нь ажилгүй иргэд олон байгаагийн нэг шалтгаан болж байгааг судалгаа харуулна. Тодруулбал, хөдөлмөр эрхлэлтийн байгууллагад бүртгэсэн ажилгүй иргэдийн 60 орчим хувийг бүрэн дунд болон бага боловсролтой хүн эзэлж байгаа бол ажилгүйчүүдийн 28.3 хувийг дээд, 1.1 хувийг магистр докторын зэрэгтэй иргэн бүрдүүлж байгаа юм. Мөн шинээр бүртгүүлсэн ажилгүй иргэдийн бараг тал хувийг ажлаас чөлөөлөгдсөн болон халагдсан иргэд эзэлж байгаагаас харахад төрийн болон хувийн хэвшлийн байгууллага, аж ахуйн нэгжид боловсон хүчний халаа сэлгээ багагүй байдаг, ажиллагсдын ажил мэргэжлийн ур чадвар тааруухан, цалин хөлс урамшууллын механизм муу байгааг илтгэж байж ч болох юм. Харамсалтай нь, улсын хэмжээний бүртгэлтэй ажилгүй иргэдийн дотор 15-34 насны, хөдөлмөрийн ид эрч хүчтэй залуучууд 60 орчим хувийг эзэлж байна.
ӨРХИЙН САРЫН ДУНДАЖ ОРЛОГО 56.4 МЯНГАН ТӨГРӨГӨӨР ӨСЧЭЭ
Үндэсний статистикийн хороо энэ үзүүлэлтийг ямар аргачлалаар хэрхэн тооцож гаргадгийг мэдэхгүй ч өрхийн сарын бодит орлого байнга шахуу өсөлттэй гардаг. Энэ оны хоёрдугаар улирлын судалгаагаар нэг өрхийн дундаж мөнгөн орлого 1.1 сая төгрөгт хүрч, өмнөх оны мөн үеийнхээс 127 мянган төгрөгөөр өссөн байгаа юм. Үүнд он гарснаас хойш нэг ч удаа нэмээгүй цалин хөлсний орлого, хөдөө аж ахуйн бус үйлдвэрлэл үйлчилгээний орлого өссөн нь чухал нөлөө үзүүлсэн гэж тооцжээ. Гэсэн ч зарлага нь орлоготойгоо тэнцэж, 96.7 мянган төгрөг илүү зарцуулахад хүнсний бус бараа, үйлчилгээ /тухайлбал, шатахууны үнэ/ болон бусад зарлага нэмэгдсэн нь нөлөөлсөн гэж дүгнэсэн байх юм. Энэ харин үнэнд ойрхон байх. Мөн айл өрхийг орлого, зарлагаар нь бүлэглэн авч үзвэл дундаж давхаргынхан давамгайлж 28.7 хувийг эзэлсэн байна. Манайхны ойлгодгоор дундаж гэдэг нь сардаа 500-900 мянган төгрөгийн орлоготой айл өрхийг хэлдэг. Хөгжиж буй зарим улс оронтой харьцуулахад ч “ичмээр дамшиг” даа, Монголын дундаж орлого. Гэхдээ л бидний хэмжүүрээр 500 мянгаас доош орлоготой 140 шахам мянган айл өрхийг бодвол арай дөнгүүр юм биз дээ. Харин 2.1 саяас дээш төгрөгөөр нэг сар амьдардаг 90 мянга орчим айл өрх /8.2 хувь/-тэй жишиж үзвэл арай л бага уу, үгүй юү. Энд статистикийн мэдээллээс ганцхан баримт дурдахад, улсын хэмжээнд ядуу бүлгийн хүн амын хэрэглээ нийт өрхийн хэрэглээний 7.6 хувийг эзэлж байдаг бол чинээлэг бүлгийнхэн 40.1 хувийг нь хэрэглэж байна. Энэ нь хэрэглээний хэмжээ 5.3 дахин зөрүүтэй байгааг илтгэж буй тоо юм. Өөрөөр хэлбэл, ядуу болон баяны ялгаа, хэрэглээ, өрхийн бодит орлого, зарлага тав дахин хол байна гэсэн үг.
Д.Мөнхжаргал
Эх сурвалж: “Монголын үнэн” сонин

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